The diagnosis “female infertility” is heard by about every second married couple who are unsuccessfully trying to conceive a child.
Depending on what factors prevent conception and pregnancy, the following types of female infertility are distinguished:
- tubal and peritoneal infertility;
- endocrine infertility;
- uterine infertility;
- immunological infertility;
- psychological infertility;
- unclear infertility.
Tubal and peritoneal infertility
Tubal infertility occurs due to anatomical and functional disorders of the fallopian tubes, peritoneal – due to the adhesions in the small pelvis. In most cases, these two types of infertility are combined with each other and are referred to as tubal peritoneal infertility (TPI).
Endocrine or hormonal infertility, as a rule, occurs in infertile women who suffer from various pathological changes in the menstrual cycle (shortening the time of menstrual bleeding to one or two days, lengthening the menstrual cycle for more than thirty-five days, absence of menstruation – amenorrhea). < / p>
Such infertility can also be suspected in patients with clinical signs of excess production of male sex hormones, hyperprolactinemia, insufficient production of estrogen, or metabolic disorders (obesity or dystrophy). It is this type of infertility that occurs in women with Itsenko-Cushing’s syndrome or disease, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and other hormonal diseases.
The cause of uterine infertility is uterine malformations, infectious and inflammatory processes in the organ, benign tumors (polyps, fibroids, fibroids, fibroids), as well as tumor-like formations – cysts. Very often, pregnancy does not occur due to problems with the cervix, which occur due to genital infections, inflammation or erosion of the cervix.
This type of infertility is diagnosed by performing a postcoital test. It is carried out only when hormonal, tubo-peritoneal and uterine infertility are excluded. Immunological disorders occur in about 2% of cases of infertility and are associated with the appearance of substances in the cervical mucus that damage or even destroy male germ cells – sperm.
Various stressful situations lead to psychological infertility: intra-family conflicts, a tense atmosphere at work, a very strong desire to get pregnant, or, conversely, fear of motherhood. As a result, menstrual irregularities occur in a woman’s body, imitating hormonal infertility. In addition, stress leads to disruption of the autonomic system and, as a result, functional tubal obstruction appears due to discordant, uncoordinated movement of the smooth muscles of the fallopian tubes.
Infertility of an unclear nature
Infertility of an unclear nature is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is installed after standard and specialized diagnostic methods, as well as excluding all known types of infertility.